matthew d. wittmer
email me:
wire.performer [at]

Memorializing Mount Carmel Center east of Waco, Texas
photos, text, & video by Matthew Wittmer
Last updated July 16, 2015

Composite of portrait photographs, arranged by Matthew Wittmer, of the 82 Branch Davidians killed in 1993.

See the Memorial Layout PDF on this site here for the name arrangement listing used for the placment of photos above.
Please email me if you have a photo of anyone above lacking an image and would like it added.

Memorial model of Mount Carmel created by Matthew Wittmer, 1999.
Memorial model of Mount Carmel, built by Matthew Wittmer in 1999.

"From start to finish, the unraveling of Waco would not be a work brought about by government and major institutions,
but by a handful of creative individualists who did their own thing."

David Hardy and Rex Kimball, p. 110 from:
This Is Not An Assault: Penetrating the Web of Official Lies Regarding the Waco Incident
Philadelphia:Xlibris, 2001, ISBN: 0-7388-6342-4, LC# 2001116314


Photos of the property and memorials on this web page are, for the most part, organized in ascending
order, from oldest first to most recent last.  This is to honor how the property looked closest
to how it did when survivors Clive and Edna Doyle moved back on it in 1999.
The earlier photos reveal evidence that no longer exists on the property today.
        Journey to Waco book cover A Journey to Waco: Autobiography of A Branch Davidian by Clive Doyle.
      In print or kindle format. Kindle has color photos; book has black and white photos.
      Catherine Wessinger and myself contributed to this book.

Below are links to material on this page for faster reference access.

        Traces of the Mount Carmel Community: PDF of my 2009 journal article in Nova Religio.
        Videos: Videos of drives to the property, memorial clip, stormshelter walks, & cemetery.
        Mount Carmel Center flag: My reconstruction design of the flag based on video footage.
        Mount Carmel Memorial model photos: The model I created for the Visitor's Center.
        Visual introduction to Mt. Carmel property: Photos of the property from FR 2491.
        Chart A: My annotated timeline of events related to the Mount Carmel property history.
        Historical Property Maps section: Maps of Mount Carmel property & the 1993 building.
        Summary of the events of 1993: A general overview of the events in the spring of 1993.
         My Involvement: How and why I began studying the property and the building.
        2013: Reflecting on an American Tragedy: 
20th anniversary symposium photos/program.
        2014: CESNUR Tour of the Mt. Carmel Property: Tour pics & my property diagram handout.
        Photos from 2000: Images of the old bus, shelter before it collapsed, David's motorcycle.
        Photos from 2008: Summer pics when Trans-Texas Corridor project was pending.
        Photos from 2009: Some of the last images of memorial trees before they were moved.
        Photos from 2010: New kitchen on the back of chapel is started & shelter is flooded.
        Photos from 2011: New kitchen on the back of the chapel continues & shelter washed out.
        Photos from 2012: Swimming pool has been almost emptied, while stormshelter is flooded.
        Photos from 201
3: A gate that locks at the front of the property has now been installed.

        Photos from 2014
: Pool filling w/ water; shelter walkway collapsed. New Zealand pics.
        Photos from 2015: Acouple panoramic shots at sunset.
        April 19th Memorials
: Select images of memorials from recent years.
        Mount Carmel Memorial Tree & Stone Layout: Story/pics about the memorial trees/stones.
        1995-2009 map of memorial trees and name stones: How the trees/stones were arranged.
        Mount Carmel/Restland/Oakwood/Tyler/New Zealand Cemeteries: 1993 victim burial sites.

        Houteff-era Davidian Burials at Rosemound: Burial sites of the Davidians.
        References: A list of information sources I have consulted.

Matthew Wittmer on the Mount Carmel property, April 21, 2013.
Matthew Wittmer on the Mount Carmel property.
April 21, 2013

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The Mount Carmel Center flag
by Matthew Wittmer

I've created several images of the Mount Carmel Center flag over the years, each based on
my close examination (of video footage taken during the siege) of the actual flag that was
flown in front of Mount Carmel.
Care has been taken to recreate as best as possible the likely
proportional relationships that existed in the original flag with the understanding that most
images of the flag were captured from cameras that were miles away with zoom lenses, at
various vantage points, and with the wind blowing it at various angles in all kinds of
different light situations.  

The snake on the original flag consisted of a reflective silver material evidenced by
some of the evening video footage where it glistens brightly as the setting sun illuminates the silver.  
The flag itself was made of satin, as per my discussion with one survivor who worked on it.  

I am still studying footage that will likely clarify the design of the small "seals" that I see as red
at this point. The fixture at the top of the flag pole appears to be a hollow Star of David ornament.
I will update my designs as I acquire more footage of the flag that reveal more detail.

Image created by Matthew Wittmer for 2010 memorial.

I created the above image for the 2010 April 19th memorial
service in Waco, Texas.  I wanted this image to be timless in nature
and more encyclopedic, which is why I used an illustrative line work 
and clear color in the design.
April 2010


Matthew Wittmer created this image from measurements and observation of many clips taken of the flag during the events of 1993.

This design approximates the proportions
existing in the flat spacial dimensions of
shape in the flag's design.
June 2009

woodcut of Mt. Carmel Center flag by m. wittmer, April 2009
I created the color woodcut above for the 2009 April 19th memorial service.
The woodcut technique and scale of the print restricted the amount of
detail I could display in this image of the flag's design.

Note the snake tail here is displayed as red in color.  This is because the snake
appears differently in photos of it during the siege depnding on the light
conditions and wind situation.  

The fabric used for the snake on the flag was reflictive silver, similar to
foil.  This material could have been sewn on top of  the blue material
used for the majority of the flag.  If this was the case, it would make
the snake tail appear darker if a source of light is behind the flag more
than in front of it, which could account for why it does appear dark
red to me in frames I've frozen from various raw news footage
taken throughout the duration of the siege.  
April 2009


Mount Carmel memorial model photos
by Matthew Wittmer

Matthew Wittmer created the model of Mount Carmel for the survivors.  It was exhibited in the survivor's
Visitor Center Museum on the Mount Carmel property from 2001 to 2006.  In 2009 the model
was accessioned by the Alkek Library archival repository at Texas State University - San Marcos
where author Dick J. Reavis has donated his research materials that pertain to the 1993
events at Mount Carmel.

   Front of Mt. Carmel memorial model.
Front of my Mount Carmel memorial model in 2000.

South side of the building.
This was the south side of the complex, the chapel is in the middle in front of the residential
tower and the gymnasium is on the photo's bottom right behind the chapel.

Pool corner.
The northeastern corner of the building area had a concrete swimming pool built in 1992.  
The central residential tower was four stories high. To the north of that tower was a room
used as a kitchen (sloped roof).

You can see gymnasium in the back, behind the chapel.
The front side of the building again.  Here you can see the gymnasium door on the right
which was actually a single door, not a double as depicted above.  

On stand, front view.
The model on the stand I made for it for the Visitor's Center Museum
on the Mount Carmel property from 2001-2006.

December 2000

Detailists might have noticed in some of my photos of the model on my web site, an
additional residential room window has been added. This was because after I made it,
 I discovered I had mistakenly left this window out (floor one, north end).

The actual building was less symmetrical than it appears upon closer study. For
instance, I put too much space between the second story windows above the
front door in this model.  In reality, those windows had much less space between them
when compared to the second story windows on the north end of the actual building.


Back side of gymnasium.
The chapel side with gymnasium from the back side view on the old model stand.
April 1999

Exhibition at the Sheldon Memorial Art Museum, Lincoln,
Nebraska.  My model was exhibited in two locations in Lincoln
prior to it's six year exhibit on the Mount Carmel property
east of Waco, Texas. The stand I created here ensured
that people saw the building at eye level so it would
appear similar to photos taken of the actual building.
Spring 2000

with model

Myself with the model.
November 1999

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Visual introduction to the
Mount Carmel property east of Waco, Texas

photos and video by Matthew Wittmer

The Mount Carmel property from Farm Road 2491 in December of 2000.
The Mount Carmel property is behind this hill in the distance off of Farm Road 2491.
The new chapel can be seen slightly to the center right.
December of 2000

The Mount Carmel property in August 2008 from Farm Road 2491. The tip of the new chapel is behind trees, center frame.

August of 2008

Property in the distance, April 2010.

April of 2010

Mt. Carmel property in the distance from FR 2491 in April 2011.
April 18, 2011

Mt. Carmel off in the distance from FR 2491. April 2012.
April 18, 2012

Mt. Carmel off in the distance from FR 2491. April 2013
April 20, 2013

April 17, 2014.

April 17, 2014

April 19, 2015

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Chart A: timeline of Mount Carmel event history
photos by Matthew Wittmer
Click the chart below to download the 8-page annotated timeline

Matthew Wittmer's Chart A: Click this image for readable PDF chart.

Chart A: A mapping of events behind the history of the Mount Carmel property east of Waco, Texas.
Click chart above to download the readable, and
annotated PDF file.

Location of Mount Carmel property

Location of Mount Carmel.  Click on map above for PDF of the map.

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Historical Mt. Carmel Property Map

Historical Property Map: Link to a fully annotated version of the map above by clicking on the map.

1993 Mt. Carmel Property Diagram

How Mount Carmel appeared in 1993. Click on map above for PDF download.

Floor layout of the 1993 building at Mt. Carmel

Ground and second floor layouts of Mount Carmel Center in 1993.
Click on map above for PDF download.

Mount Carmel: summary of the events of 1993
by Matthew Wittmer

A few miles east of Waco, Texas lies 77 acres of land that is owned by the General Association of the Branch Davidian Seventh-day Adventists.  I refer to this land on this web page as the "Mount Carmel Property." On that land, there have been several buildings constructed since 1957 or possibly even 1945.  Those who have resided on the property over the decades have referred to the land by a few names, but a recurring title has been Mount Carmel or Mt. Carmel.  Those who resided and studied with David Koresh from the early 1980's onward refer to the property and the residential complex they built there as Mt. Carmel or Mount Carmel. It is also referred to as 'new Mt. Carmel' because the original Davidian property under Victor Houteff's leadership was in the city of Waco until the mid 1950s.
Those who built and lived in this particular residential complex east of Waco along with David Koresh became the focus of worldwide attention in 1993 when they were raided by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF or BATF), an agency of the Treasury Department.

The February raid in 1993 (later determined by many sources to have been conducted for publicity to gain the press coverage for the ATF prior to the then upcoming budget appropriation hearings that threatened to cut funding for the ATF) utilized significant gunfire from agents that resulted in the killing of several Mount Carmel residents.  Four ATF agents were also killed from gunfire that day.  Mount Carmel residents claim they fired in self defense to protect themselves from the agents gunfire and explosives deployed by the ATF agents that morning.  It was later determined at the criminal jury trial in San Antonio jury that the ATF agents in this raid had used "excessive force."  

After this initial raid, the FBI positioned themselves as negotiators and law enforcement on the Mount Carmel property by blocking off public access to the property by surrounding the perimeter and coordinating with various other agencies.
Many residents refused to leave Mount Carmel for a variety of reasons, the primary being a distrust from being raided illegally with excessive force followed by a heavily biased media coverage that claimed residents had "murdered" or "ambushed" the ATF agents that morning. Residents also faced the threat of loosing their property if they left their building that day, as this would have broken a five-year residential agreement the group committed to in 1988 (see Chart A on this website, end note c43). On 19 April 1993 American government tanks demolished major sections of the complex while media coverage stated residents were still inside. The building caught fire around noon that day and burnt completely to the ground. The remains of at least 82 residents were recovered from the site which had been leveled by the fire. The FBI justified their tank demolition, as well as their gassing of the complex (both of which would have jeopardized the lives of children and infants living inside), as a tactic to scare the parents they said were inside the building in hopes it would convince parents to remove their children from the dangers the tanks and gas presented.  

While the government's official ruling since the day of the fire has been that the residents of Mount Carmel set the final fire, the eleven Mount Carmel survivors that were accused of murder and conspiracy to murder federal agents were each found not guilty in the 1994 San Antonio criminal jury trial. A significant degree of the public conscious continues to be grossly misinformed of the complexity of the events of the initial ATF raid, the events during the siege, the criminal trial, civil trial, the re-examination of the case by Special Counsel, and the history of Davidian and Branch Davidian movements on the Mount Carmel property.  This is because widespread awareness about the group's theology, history, and the survivors' perspectives have not been made as accessible for public consumption to an equal degree as the government's perspective of this group that has been fanned by mainstream media sources. Survivor and independent perspectives have not been privy to the widespread distribution channels the FBI utilized during the siege.  Thier perspective of the siege continues to live on in the documented coverage since that time. Coverage during the siege remained highly sensational in character and grossly simplified due to various factors that included the demand for new updates and stories every day during the 1993 siege by networks, the polarizing reliance on primarily the tactical and government agencies for progress reports throughout the siege. The lifestyle of the community that the government perspectives presented emphasized the differences this community had (and in some cases did not have) when compared to mainstream American cultural beliefs.  In the effort to encapsulate the events and aftermath, press coverage and documentaries frequently oversimplify the case cradeling the notion that the people inside Mount Carmel were a strange religious cult.  I created this web page to help provide information about the community from a less sensational point of view.

My involvement with Mount Carmel
by Matthew Wittmer

Visiting the property with survivors. April 18, 2010. Photo courtesy W. Taylor.
Visiting the Mount Carmel property with survivors.
April 18, 2010
Photo courtesy of W. Taylor

The catalyst that inspired me to begin getting more directly involved with the people, documents and work that all pertains to this community (and the continual research into the events of 1993) was seeing the director's cut of a documentary by Michael McNulty, called Waco: The Rules of Engagement (the red-jacket, director's cut) in 1998. That version, as well as the mass produced version by Somford Entertainment, galvanized me with its juxtapositions of survivor accounts and footage taken throughout the raid, siege, and events on 19 April 1993.

Initially I was very interested in understanding more about how and why the building the FBI and press referred to as a "compound" was constructed.  I began contacting survivors in 1999 and started visiting the property eight miles east of Waco.  As you can see from the photos on this web page, I have continued to revisit the property and survivors over the years. When I visited in December 2000 several artifacts from the siege (the bus, David's motorcycle, piled rubble) still remained.  From 1999 to 2006 was also when the memorial efforts on the property were primarily managed by survivors.

I began asking survivors Clive and Edna Doyle about the Mt. Carmel complex in 1999.  These inquiries interested me more in the lives of the survivors and in becoming more informed about what had happened at Mount Carmel, as well as what is being done (and not done) to preserve the history of this community and what happened.  Clive explained that the building at Mount Carmel was constructed from recycled lumber that had been re-used from smaller houses that had been constructed on the property after the property was acquired in 1957, however I have since come across aerial photographs of these structures that suggest those little houses could have been there as early as 1945.  These houses were dismantled (according to Clive Doyle and Sheila Martin's accounts) with the specific intent to reuse the lumber from them to construct a larger, communal residential facility to cut down on travel time between houses for the elderly and to create a more community environment for when religious study sessions were held. Oversight of the design and construction was primarily directed by David Koresh. The people who knew the most about the history behind that building's construction were those who had built it and most of them were killed between the raid on 28 February and the destruction on 19 April 1993. 

Many sections of the building were used for various functions according to the survivors and functions changed as the complex expanded.  The front lengthwise section accommodated men's and women's residential rooms. All other exterior structures were added for the growing needs of the community.  These included a kitchen, which was behind the living quarters on the northern end, a gymnasium structure located behind the chapel, a four-story residential tower to the south of the kitchen, and a swimming pool just behind the kitchen.

Through developing observational drawings from video footage and photos of the complex, I constructed a model of the building to better understand the layout and function it provided the community, which is the model pictured in these photos on this web page.  I also designed the model to serve as a memorial to those who lost their lives during the events of 1993.  The model was eventually installed on the Mount Carmel property in late 2000 in the Visitor’s Center Museum (created by Clive in 1998) that was in operation between 1998 and 2006. The Visitor's Center Museum was managed by Clive Doyle and a local supporter up until March of 2006. During that time it exhibited artifacts from the building, surviving photos of the life on the property prior to the siege, donated photos from family and friends of residents who belonged to the community, defense exhibit photographs of the property, events, and agents present throughout the 1993 raid and siege.  Tens of thousands of people traveling through the area have visited the property since 1993 and continue to visit to this day.  

Due to ongoing differences in religious theology between the survivors and Charles Pace, a man who had not been a part of David Koresh's community but who had visited the property ever since the 1960s, Clive decided to move off of the property in March 2006. He and others ceased going there to worship beginning in 2006 (others who stopped using it were Sheila Martin, Catherine Matteson, and Bonnie Haldeman).  The property since 2006 has been managed by Charles Pace. Original materials and the theme of preserving the memory of the community under the theology of Koresh at the Visitor's Center Museum was dismantled by Clive in the summer of 2006 as well.  Since 2006, and as of August 2012, that little center has remained vacant.

In September of 2006 I picked up the model in Waco from Clive Doyle to help him save on storage expenses.

In August of 2008 I received a fellowship to research material holdings (i.e. records/documents) pertaining to Waco Branch Davidian history as well as materials pertaining to the events of 1993.  These materials are cared for by the Texas Collection, an archival research center in Carroll Library on the Baylor University campus.  

The Wittliff Collections at Texas State University-San Marcos Alkek Library received a Texas Heritage Digitization Initiative grant around 2008 to digitize a portion of investigative author Dick Reavis's research materials they now hold, that he amassed for his book The Ashes of Waco in 1995.   In February of 2009, I introduced survivors Sheila Martin and Catherin Matteson to Joel Minor and Kurt Johnson from the Wittliff Collections as it was Joel and Kurt who were working diligently to digitize many Reavis materials now available on a website managed by the Alkek library (see references for the link).  

Meeting with Texas State archivists, Sheila Martin, and Catherine Matteson. February 2009.
Archivists Kurt Johnson & Joel Minor of Texas State
University-San Marcos meet with survivors Catherine Matteson,
Sheila Martin, and artist/librarian Matthew Wittmer.
February 2009

A photo of me has been featured on a blog that Texas State set up to follow the Waco digital project progress at:

In October 2009, my model of Mount Carmel was graciously accessioned by the Wittliff Collections at Alkek Library, Texas State University-San Marcos, where Dick J. Reavis research materials about Mount Carmel are located.  News of the accession can be found at the blog linked to the digital archive the repository created with a special grant to digitize various materials in the Reavis collection:

Understanding the history behind the Mount Carmel property, the religious communities that have lived on it, and the events of 1993, for me, has involved critically and comparatively analyzing records about the 1993 events, both visual and textual. It has involved examining critical perspective material produced about the 1993 events and aftermath; speaking, writing, and visiting with survivors; visiting the Mount Carmel site and the Waco area. Ken Fawcett has been a tremendous resource of knowledge and deserves mention. I created Chart A on this website from various materials in order to juxtapose events and people who have lived on the property. Chart A is not set in stone; I update it periodically. 

Although these events are complex, I've found every survivor that I have met, written, or spoken with, to be down to earth and extremely approachable. It is my hope that more attention will continue to be devoted to their stories so that this multiracial congregation that was comprised of people from around the world can be seen for who they are and/or were, and not for who the mainstream press often presents them to be - cultists.  Catherine Wessinger of Loyola University in New Orleans has graciously assisted three survivors in the process of creating their own autobiographies that present very humanized perspectives about this small community that has been so sensationalized over the years. I assisted Cathy with producing Clive's autobiography. Bonnie Haldeman's autobiography was released in 2007 (Bonnie was tragically stabbed and killed by her sister on January 23, 2009). Sheila Martin's autobiography was released in April of 2009 and Clive Doyle's book is now released in August of 2012. Cathy Wessinger also interviewed survivor Catherine Matteson, a long time community member who was Lois Roden's assistant (Ben Roden's wife), and created oral history transcripts of Matteson's interviews which have been donated to the Texas Collection at Baylor University. Matteson passed away on October 6, 2009.

Please consider picking up a copy of these survivor accounts to learn more about their community and the events of 1993.

Matthew Wittmer
Slightly updated in June 2015


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Baylor University
Institute for Studies of Religion Symposium

2013: Reflecting on an American Tragedy:
The Branch Davidians 20 Years Later

Gordon Melton of Baylor University's Institute for Studies of Religion organized a full day symposium dedicated to reflecting on Branch Davidian history and the events of 1993.  I was invited to present a pictorial history of the Mount Carmel property to kick off the presentations.  Other speakers included Phillip Arnold, Catherine Wessinger, Clive Doyle, Sheila Martin, Stuart Wright and Gary Noesner.  For more details see the documents and links below:

Selected presenters at the Branch Davidian symposium on April 18th, 2013.

Composite photo of some presenters during the April 18th 2013 symposium.

Link directly to the videos of each speaker's presentation in this full day symposium below:

The Branch Davidians 20 Years Later: Video Conference Presentations

Click the image below for PDF of symposium program and biographies of all presenters:

Click here for PDF of Symposium Program


Branch Davidian Sheila Martin, documentarian Matthew Wittmer, and Criminal Justice author Stuart Wright after the day long Branch Davidian symposium on April 18th, 2013.
Branch Davidian Sheila Martin, property documentarian Matthew Wittmer, and
Criminal Justice author Stuart Wright following the April 18th, 2013 symposium.


FBI Chief Negotiator Gary Noesner and Branch Davidian fire survivor Clive Doyle interface following the Branch Davidian symposium on April 18th, 2013.
Former FBI Chief Negotiator (for the initial weeks of the 1993 siege)
Gary Noesner and Branch Davidian fire survivor Clive Doyle talk following the
symposium presentations on April 18, 2013.

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2014 CESNUR Tour of the Mount Carmel Property
by Matthew Wittmer

Gordon Melton, who is the head of Baylor University's Institute for Studies of Religion department, invited me to assist with a tour of the Mount Carmel property for the annual CESNUR conference attendees. The conference was held at Baylor in June of 2014. CESNUR is a group of international scholars who specialize in the study of new religious movements. Below are some photos from the tour and a link to my diagram handout that helped acquaint folks with the basics of the Mount Carmel property and where David's big building once stood.

Click here for the CESNUR handout that has diagrams
Click above to get the PDF of the handout I created that
has diagrams to help you understand the property history.

Clive Doyle talks to a group near the front of the property.
June 7, 2014

Catherine Wessinger explains some of the history to visitors.
June 7, 2014

The remains of the storm shelter in the summer time.
April 19, 2014

In front of the chapel & Alex Norman from the University of Sydney, Austraila.
June 7, 2014

With Phil Arnold, Ron, Sheila and Clive that evening.
June 7, 2014

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Mount Carmel property: photos from December 2000
by Matthew Wittmer

Road sign just as you leave Waco to Mt. Carmel.
Farm road sign just as you leave Waco heading for the property.
December 2000

The property as you enter from double EE ranch road.
A new chapel was built with donations where the old one used
to exisit.  The white stucture closer to the camera is one of
Amo Roden's self-built monuments.  She was squatting on the
property when I took the photo and distributing her literature
from this monument.  Amo had a common-law marriage to
George Roden just before David's community came to the
property in the late 1980s.
December 2000

           Remains of a bus that could be seen in footage during the siege.         
  Remains of one of the buses that was present during the siege
still rested in the same spot in 2000 but it was removed
sometime between 2004 and 2006.
December 2000

Panoramic shot of new chapel on property where old one stood.
The new chapel (finished with volunteer efforts in 2000) rests approximately where the old chapel had existed.
December 2000

Marker posts pinpointed where sections of the building stood.
Building location markers were placed to commemorate
where parts of the building once stood.
December 2000

       Text of the men's dormitory side sign.      
 Text on the locale marker.
December 2000

Chapel marker sign that was posted in 2000.
 Text on the second marker.  These no longer exist on the property.
December 2000

View from where front doors used to be of BATF house.
This photo was taken from where the front doors of David's Mount Carmel
used to exist. The former Visitor's Center can be seen on the left and
the house the ATF used is visible across the street.  This house was
demolished in 2004.
One of David Koresh's motorcycles can be seen
here but has since been moved.
December 2000

All names on one memorial marker.
This stone memorializes all the names of those killed in Mount Carmel
community in 1993. Charles Pace moved it to the front of the property
sometime after 2006 where he also stacked all of the
individual name stones from the memorial trees.
December 2000

 The pool is all that remains.
The pool foundation was intact and was full of water in 2000.
December 2000

Amo Roden, who was on the property, had painted her version of events on the concrete sections left on the property.
  Former self-proclaimed Branch Davidian Amo Roden painted her version
of the events on the pool's concrete foundation. Amo was not part of
David's community. Her writing here has eroded or been removed
since this photo.
December 2000


The underground storm shelter is also still there.
The underground storm shelter they were building at the time of the siege is also still there, mostly water logged.
December 2000

North end of underground stormshelterin 2000
This was the north end of the storm shelter in
December of 2000

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Mount Carmel property: photos from 2008
by Matthew Wittmer

   The crape myrtle trees, summer of 2008.
         The crape myrtle trees were still doing well.
August 2008

As evening sun sets. You can see the opposition the the highway project posted here.
Opposition to the Trans-Texas Corridor project can be seen posted here,
as the sun sets at Mount Carmel.
See Dina Raston's article in my
reference section for more information.
August 2008

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Mount Carmel property: photos from 2009
by Matthew Wittmer

Mt. Carmel property in mid-February 2009
The property in February of 2009.

The 2001 chapel in February 2009
The 2001 chapel has been used by Charles Pace and his congregation
since 2006.  Charles was not a member of David's community.
Photo February 2009

Memorial crape myrtle trees and 2001 chapel in February 2009
The crape myrtle trees were still growing strong in their
original 1995 positioning in February of 2009.
February of 2009

Inside of pool foundation, February 2009
The inside of the swimming pool did not hold as much water in
2009 as it once did.
February 2009

West end of storm shelter caving in. February 2009.
The west end of the storm shelter begins to cave in.
February 2009

Photo collage of storm shelter. February 2009.
Photo collage of the storm shelter.
February 2009

The two small connecting underground rooms south of the storm shelter. February 2009.
Photo collage of the two underground rooms that extended south from the south east corner
of the main underground storm shelter.
February 2009

Catherine Matteson in February 2009.
Survivor Catherine Matteson in the city of Waco at the
back door of her apartment. Catherine
passed away the following October.
February of 2009

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Mt. Carmel property: photos from 2010

by Matthew Wittmer

Visiting the chapel with Sheila. April 18, 2010.
Survivor Sheila Martin talks about the property history
at Mount Carmel.  
April 18, 2010

New kitchen wall being added. April 18, 2010.
A new kitchen is being built on the back of the chapel
by current property resident Charles Pace.
April 18, 2010

Clive visiting Charlie and discovering the new kitchen. April 18, 2010.
Charles talks about what he's been doing as Clive Doyle looks on.
April 18, 2010

Underground storm shelter ruins are completely flooded. April 18. 2010.
The remains of the underground storm shelter are
completely flooded out this year.
April 18, 2010

Storm sets in over the chapel. April 18, 2010.
Storm clouds gather as rain begins.
April 18, 2010

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Mount Carmel property: photos from 2011
by Matthew Wittmer

Front of the property. April 18, 2011.
Charles Pace has built new stone gates at the property's entrance.
April 18, 2011

Approaching the chapel. April 19, 2011.
Approaching the chapel - the replanted memorial trees have taken root.
April 18, 2011

Chapel. April 18, 2011.
The chapel has been painted a softer off-white color in the last year.
April 18, 2011

New kitchen is being added in the rear of chapel. April 18, 2011.
Progress on the kitchen in the back has developed over the
last year.
April 18, 2011

Walking atop the remains of the storm shelter. April 18, 2011.
Walking atop the bare remains of the underground storm shelter.
April 18, 2011


Sitting at the pool remains. April 19, 2011.
Sitting at the remains of the pool.
April 19, 2011

   Chapel from the lake in the early morning. April 20, 2011.
The chapel from the lake side early in the morning.
April 20, 2011

[Back to index near top of page]

Mount Carmel property: photos from 2012
by Matthew Wittmer

Looking north toward the chapel. April 21, 2012.
Looking north toward the chapel
April 21, 2012

Simian cutting grass with a machete.
Simeon cutting the grass with a machete. Taken from the second
floor window of the chapel looking west toward Double EE.
April 21, 2012

Stormshelter looking eastward. April 21, 2012.
Storm shelter looking eastward.
April 21, 2012

Uncovered end of the stormshelter, flooded, deteriorating. April 21, 2012.
Uncovered end of the storm shelter, flooded, deteriorating.
April 21, 2012

Walking the stormshelter division wall. April 21, 2012.
Walking the storm shelter dividing wall.
April 21, 2012

The swimming pool has been emptied this past year by Charlie Pace to water the garden.
The swimming pool foundation has been emptied this 
past year by Charles Pace who has been watering a
garden just east of the pool (photo left). He told me
he has plans of creating an "aquaponic garden" in the pool.
April 21, 2012

Deep end of the pool and chapel. April 21, 2012.
Deep end of the pool foundation and the chapel.
April 21, 2012

Almost empty swimming pool. April 2012.
Ruins of the swimming pool have been almost emptied
by Charles Pace.
April 21, 2012

Author Cathy Wessinger and Matthew Wittmer in the remains of the swimming pool at Mount Carmel. April 21, 2012.
Author Cathy Wessinger and Matthew Wittmer stand in the remains of the
swimming pool foundation at Mount Carmel.
April 21, 2012

East end of the old dairy barn on the eastern end of the property. April 21, 2012.
Eastern end of the old dairy barn on the eastern most end of the property.
This is where the FBI positioned their forward looking observers
during the 1993 siege.
April 21, 2012



[Back to index near top of page]

Mount Carmel property: photos from 2013
by Matthew Wittmer


New front steel locking gate, 2013.
A new metal gate that locks has been added to the front drive.  Neighbor across
the street, Mr. Morris, has shouted at me from across the street now three years
in a row when I arrive to visit in an effort to deter me from driving in.
April 20, 2013




Chapel, 2013.
April 21, 2013




Chapel from the south, 2013.
South side looking north.
April 21, 2013




Telephone pole, 2013.
Telephone pole present in 1993 still stand, looking about the land.
April 21, 2013




Pool, 2013.
April 20, 2013




Pool and chapel, 2013.
Looking south, pool and chapel. Beautiful colors.
April 21, 2013




Storm shelter ruins, 2013.
Storm shelter concrete remains.
April 21, 2013




Walk, 2013.
Walking the shelter ruin's dividing wall.
April 20, 2013

The vault once sat here. 2013.
Where the vault once was; and, where 15 children and 5 women were found
killed (inside that vault) on April 19, 1993.
April 21, 2013



Driveway to Double EE Ranch Road. 2013.
The end of the Mount Carmel driveway looking toward Double EE Ranch Road.
April 21, 2013



New gate looking out from the inside. 2013.
Gate from inside the driveway looking toward Double EE Ranch Road.
April 21, 2013

[Back to index near top of page]

Mount Carmel property: photos from 2014 + New Zealand
by Matthew Wittmer


Chapel April 17, 2014
Chapel as the rain starts to drizzle in.
April 17, 2014

At the pool before the rain, April 17, 2014.
At the swimming pool before the rain.
April 17, 2014

Tunnel to the buried bus is caving in. April 17, 2014.
Tunnel to the buried bus is collapsing inward.
April 17, 2014

Walking the dividing shelter foundation wall. April 17, 2014.
Walking the storm shelter foundation dividing wall.
April 17, 2014

Davidian era house foundation.
Davidian-era house foundation footprint.
April 17, 2014

Property April 18, 2014.
The Mount Carmel Property drive and memorial trees.
April 18, 2014

Chapel, April 18, 2014.
Chapel on a clear spring day.
April 18, 2014

South side of Chapel from the kitchen end, April 18, 2014.
South side of the chapel at the kitchen end.
April 18, 2014

On the old gymnasium foundation behind chapel, April 18, 2014.
Foundation of the old gymnasium behind the chapel.
April 18, 2014

Swimming pool, April 18, 2014.
The swimming pool has collected water and has fish and frogs in it.
April 18, 2014

Silent witnesses: the telephone poles, April 18, 2014.
Looking at the silent witnesses: the telephone poles.
April 18, 2014

Myself, Catherine Wessinger, Gordon Melton, April 18, 2014.
Myself, Catherine Wessinger, and Gordon Melton by the pool.
April 18, 2014

Catherine Wessinger and Gordon Melton, April 18, 2014.
Gordon Melton and Catherine Wessinger.
April 18, 2014

Driving with Grace
Driving with Grace in Auckland, New Zealand to Mangere Cemetery to pay
our respects to Neil Vaega's burial site. Grace is one of two sisters of
Rebecca Saipa'ia who was killed at Mount Carmel in 1993. Grace has
devoted a great deal of her life sharing her story about how she
tried desperately to save her sister and almost perished herself
at Mount Carmel.
Photo August 2014

Grace and Poia
With Grace, her sister Poia, their mother, and Holly in New Zealand.
Photo August 2014

[Back to index near top of page]

Mount Carmel property: photos from 2015
by Matthew Wittmer

Pano of the rainy morning at Mt. Carmel in 2015
Rainy morning on the memorial.
April 19, 2015

telephone poles
Telephone poles the tanks circled around in 1993 still stand.
April 19, 2015

David's steps
David's steps in the pool.
April 19, 2015

At the pool.
At the pool.
April 19, 2015

Memorial trees this year.
April 19, 2015

1950s house foundations still remain in 2015.
Evening light after the memorial. You can see the 1950s house foundations still in 2015.
April 19, 2015

Pano before sunset.
Panorama before sunset.
April 19, 2015

Pano at sunset
Panorama at sunset from behind the pool.
April 19, 2015

[Back to index near top of page]

April 19th memorials
2009 - 2015

photos by Matthew Wittmer

Catherine Matteson speaking at the 2009 April 19th memorial.
Survivor Catherine Matteson speaks.
April 19, 2009

2009 April 19th memorial. Clive Doyle.
Survivor Clive Doyle speaks at the memorial.
April 19, 2009




2010 April 19th memorial. Clive Doyle.
People come in as Clive Doyle speaks.
April 19, 2010


2010 memorial. Survivors of the events in 1993.
April 19, 2010



April 19th memorial in 2011. Clive Doyle speaking.
Survivor Clive Doyle speaking at the April 19th memorial in 2011.




2011 April 19th memorial. Clive Doyle.
Clive Doyle speaking at the 2011 memorial.
April 19, 2011



Sheila Martin and Kathy Jones. April 19th 2011 memorial.
Sheila and Kathy at the luncheon that followed.
April 19, 2011

2011 memorial. Survivors and attendees.
April 19, 2011



Survivors Kevin Whitecliff, Brad Branch and Clive Doyle at the 2012 memorial.
Survivors Kevin and Brad along with Clive Doyle at the
April 19th, 2012 memorial.




Author Cathy Wessinger presents recent findings at the 2012 memorial.
Author Cathy Wessinger presents recent findings
at the April 19th, 2012 memorial in Waco, Texas.





Survivors Ofelia Santoyo and Kathy Jones.
Ofelia and Kathy.
April 19, 2012



Author Dick Reavis and Catherine Wessinger before the 2013 memorial.
Author Dick Reavis speaks with Catherine Wessinger as videographer
Jon Roland looks on, before the April 19th 2013 memorial begins.



Survivor Clive Doyl and Cathy Wessinger discuss Matthew Wittmer's list of names before the April 19, 2013 memorial.
Survivor Clive Doyle speaks with Catherine Wessinger about this year's
list of names of everyone who was killed that Matthew Wittmer compiled
in a handout before Clive starts the April 19th, 2013 memorial.




Charles Pace speaks with Dick Reavis before the memorial in 2013.
Charles Pace speaks to Dick Reavis before the April 19th, 2013 memorial.




Matthew Wittmer and Charles Pace before the 2013 memorial.
Matthew Wittmer and Charles pace before the April 19th, 2013 memorial.





Catherine Wessinger speaks at the April 19th, 2103 memorial
Catherine Wessinger addresses the crowd at the April 19th, 2013 memorial.




Matthew Wittmer donates a composite image of the 82 Branch Davidians killed in 1993 to the Taylor Museum as survivor Clive Doyle and Helen Marie Taylor speak.
Matthew Wittmer presents a composite image he created of the 82 Branch Davidians
killed in 1993 at the April 19th, 2013 memorial service while survivor Clive Doyle
and he listen to Helen Marie Taylor's address to the audience.
Photo by Catherine Wessinger.



Survivor Clive Doyle speaking at the April 19th, 2013 memorial.
Clive Doyle begins reading the names of all those killed in 1993 at the
April 19th, 2013 memorial service.


Survivor Paul Fatta speaks at the April 19th, 2013 memorial.
Survivor Paul Fatta speaks at the April 19th, 2013 memorial
about his experiences following the fire in 1993.



Kathy and Paul at the 2013 memorial service.
Kathy and Paul at the April 19th, 2013 memorial lunch.




Rick Donaldson and Clive Doyle at the 2013 memorial.
Rick Donaldson and Clive Doyle after the April 19th, 2013
memorial service.




Trial model at the Taylor Museum, 2013.
The trial model of the Mount Carmel building is now on exhibit at the
Helen Marie Taylor Museum in Waco, Texas.
April 19, 2013




East end of the property looking west of the trial model at the Taylor Museum, 2013.
Looking westward and a bit south towards the back of the trial model
of the Mount Carmel building now exhibited in the Taylor museum
in Waco, Texas.
April 19th, 2013




Survivor Clive Doyle talks about the Mt. Carmel Center building at the Taylor Museum, 2013.
Survivor Clive Doyle recounts details about the Mount Carmel
building over one of the trial model of the building now
exhibited in the Taylor museum.
April 19, 2013



Matthew Wittmer stands by the composite of faces he created in April of 2013 for the Taylor Museum's room dedicated to the 1993 events at Mt. Carmel.
Matthew Wittmer stands in the Taylor Museum next to the composite photo he created
of the 82 Branch Davidians killed in 1993.  The museum acquired the image at the 
April 19th 2013 memorial service so it may be exhibited in the museum's permanent
display of artifacts in a room dedicated to reflecting on the 1993 events.
Photo by Catherine Wessinger

The April 19th 2014 Mount Carmel Memorial.
The April 19th 2014 Mt. Carmel Memorial.
April 19, 2014

Survivor Clive Doyle who organizes the memorials. April 19, 2014.
Clive Doyle speaking at the memorial.
April 19, 2014

Matthew Wittmer and Clive Doyle, April 19, 2014.
With Clive Doyle after the memorial.
April 19, 2014

Ron Goins, Clive Doyle, Sheila Martin, Catherine Wessinger and Matthew Wittmer, April 19, 2014.
Post memorial, outside the Helen Marie Taylor Museum.
Ron Goins, Clive Doyle, Sheila Martin, Catherine Wessinger, Matthew Wittmer.
April 19, 2014

Clive and Charles
Clive Doyle reading the names and Charles Pace rings the memorial bell.
April 19, 2015

Sweedish videographer
Sweedish videographers documented the memorial this year.
April 19, 2015

Catherine and Ken
Catherine Wessinger and Ken Fawcett.
April 19, 2015

Laura and Cathy at the vault
Catherine Wessinger and Laura Gienger at the site of where
the vault once stood (center of the two track).
April 19, 2015

Cathy and Matthew
Catherine Wessinger and Matthew Wittmer in the chapel.
April 19, 2015

Clive Doyle explaining the history at the Helen Marie Taylor Museum.
April 19, 2015

Ofelia Santoyo, Sheila Martin and Marlene.
Ofelia, Sheila, and Marlene.
April 19, 2015

Helen Marie Taylor Museum in Waco, Texas. The memorial faces composite I made
of the people who were killed in 1993 is now exhibited there (photo right).
April 19, 2015

[Back to index near top of page]

Evolution of the Mount Carmel memorial tree & stone layout
beginning with survivor efforts at the
1995 April 19th Memorial.

by Matthew Wittmer

In 1995, memorial crape myrtle trees were planted on the Mount Carmel property directly in front of
where David's building once stood. They were planted by Rick Donaldson and the survivors
 during the April 19th 1995 memorial.


Star Howell's tree
Memorial tree and stone for Star Howell.

Trees in the winter without blooms...
Trees here are without blooms in the winter.
December of 2000

Trees in August of 2008.
Memorial trees.
August 2008

These trees were later each fitted with memorial headstones that had the name, date of death,
age, and country of origin of every community member who was killed between February and
April of 1993.

David's memorial headstone. It was destroyed by Charles Pace and all other memorial headstones were uprooted from their individual memorial trees in 2006 and placed near the front of the property.

  David's memorial headstone as it appeared on
the Mount Carmel property.
December of 2000

Charles Pace (property resident since at least 1996) moved all of these stones from the trees in
2006 (see Cindy Culp article in references for photo of the original uprooting - David's stone was
destroyed as well). In April 2009, the stones were stacked vertically in two piles under the tree
near the front gate.  In April of 2013, Pace explained to me reasoning for why he moved the stones.
I will transcribe the recording of his reasoning to post on this site by the summer of 2013.

Where the stones were at in February of 2009. Photo taken from the property looking toward the drive's exit to the road.
Here you can see the name stones stacked
in two piles under the tree near the
property's front gate.
February of 2009

Charlie Pace by the stones in April 2010.
Charlie Pace by the stones.
April 2010

In April of 2009, Charles had the trees themselves each uprooted from their original 1995 location,
which has effectively erased the survivor's initial memorial layout of the trees and stones. The trees
were pruned and replanted along the drive that lead from Double EE ranch road to the chapel.  Look
for my transcription of his reasoning for moving these by late summer of 2013 on this web page.

The trees as of April 2009 - uprooted from original placement and replanted along the drive.
This is how the trees appeared in April of 2009 - completely
removed from their original placement and pruned.

Replanted trees April 2010
The trees in April 2010.

Sometime in 2010-11, Charles Pace cemented the name stones together into more permanant walls
and positioned atop one wall another marble header that is a timeline of "shepherds" related to
Davidian/Branch Davidian history.

Memorial stones as arranged by Pace in 2011.
Newly cemented memorial stones with platform.
April 18, 2011

Memorial stone wall with the flags in 2011.
Flags representing the nationalities of those killed
in 1993 are now positioned in front of the stones.
April 19, 2011

One of two walls of the memorial stones rearranged by Pace. April 2011.
First stacked wall of memorial name stones.
April 18, 2011

Second wall of memorial stones as arranged by Pace. April 2011.
Second stacked wall of memorial name stones.
April 18, 2011

Trees in 2011. April 18, 2011.
The replanted, repositioned trees.
April 18, 2011

Memorial trees from the second floor vantage point of the chapel. April 21, 2012.
The memorial trees from the vantage point of the
second floor of the chapel.
April 21, 2012

Stacked monument at front gate, April 20, 2013.
Stacked monument near the front gate by tree.
April 20, 2013

Memorial crape myrtle trees, April 21, 2013.
Crape Myrtle Memorial Trees.
April 20, 2013

Below is a map of how the survivors planted these trees in 1995 and how they fitted each one
with a stone name marker. I made this map, and rubbings from every name stone, in December
of 2000. Row one was the furthest from where Mount Carmel once stood and row nine was the
closest to where the front of the building once was.

Now that all stones and tress have been removed, my website is the only effort that has 
documented the layout of how the trees and stones were initially arranged by survivors.

[Back to index near top of page]

Original placement of the Mount Carmel 
memorial name stones and trees
coordinated by the survivors

(from 1995-2006)
Documented by Matthew Wittmer in December of 2000

Click here for Matthew Wittmer's PDF of the memorial tree and stone layout
Map of how the stones and trees were arranged from 1995-2006. 
Click chart above for readable PDF.

[Back to index near top of page]


Rubbings of Mount Carmel Memorial name stones
Rubbings made in December of 2000.
by Matthew Wittmer

I created the following rubbings of the name stones in 2000 to
preserve them should they ever be moved or destroyed.
David's stone has since been destroyed.

Row 1, the furthest from where Mount Carmel stood, south to east (6 stones)

Michael Schroeder

Clifford Sellors

Margarida Vaega

Neil Vaega

Jaydean Wendel

Mark H. Wendel

Row 2, south to east (9 stones)

Lorraine Sylvia

Hollywood Sylvia

Rachel Sylvia

Floracita Sonobe

Scott K. Sonobe

Aisha Summers

Aborted Baby Summers

Startle Summers

Gregory A. Summers

Row 3, south to east (11 stones)

John M. McBean

A. Bernadette Monbelly

Melissa Morrison

Rosemary Morrison

Sonia Murray

Theresa Nobrega

James L. Riddle

Rebecca Saipaia

Judith Schneider

Mayanah Schneider

Steven Schneider

Row 4, south to east (11 stones)

Douglas W. Martin

Anita M. Martin

Sheila R. Martin

Lisa M. Martin

Wayne Martin

Abigail Martinez

Audrey M. Martinez

Joseph S. Martinez

Isaiah Barrios

Crystal Barrios

Juliette Santoyo

Row 5, south to east (11 stones)

Little One Jones

Chica Jones

Michelle Thibodeau

Serenity Sea Jones

Livingston Malcolm

Diane Martin

Jeffrey Little

Nicole E. Little

Dayland L. Gent

Paiges Gent

Aborted Fetus Gent

Row 6, south to east (10 stones)

Novelette Hipsman

Peter Hipsman

Floyd Houtman

Rachel Howell

Cyrus Howell

Star Howell

David Koresh

Bobbie L. Koresh

Sherri Jewell

Perry D. Jones

Row 7, south to east (9 stones)

Peter Gent

Sandra Hardial

Diana Henry

Paulina Henry

Phillip Henry

Steven Henry

Vanessa Henry

Zilla Henry

David M. Jones

Row 8, south to east (8 stones)

Pablo Cohen

Abedowalo Davies

Sharie E. Doyle

Evette Fagan

Doris Fagan

Beverly Elliott

Lisa Farris

Raymond Friesen

Row 9, closest to where Mount Carmel once stood, south to east (7 stones)

Jennifer Andrade

Chanel Andrade

Kathy Andrade

Alrick G. Bennett

Susan Benta

Winston Blake

Mary Jean Borst


[Back to index near top of page]



Cemeteries/burial sites of Mount Carmel Community residents

Mount Carmel Cemetery Burials
(on the property)

Photos by Matthew Wittmer
April 20, 2010
(added 2014 photo)

Several people have been buried on the Mount Carmel property in a cemetery that barely has markers anymore.
As of April 2011, three markers remain on the graves. While the cemetery was overgrown with weeds in April 
of 2010, a year later it had been mowed and horse manure is evident in various spots within the area.  As of 
April 2013, Edna's stone has been moved and the area was mown and tidy.

Mt. Carmel cemetery at the north end of the property.
The Mount Carmel cemetery as seen on April 18, 2010.  
It is located inside the start of the chain link fence near
the road at the south end of the property.

The cemetery inside the front gate. April 18, 2011.
Here in 2011, you can see the cemetery has been mowed and is being
used as a pasture.
April 18, 2011

Tillie Friesen's grave marker.
Tillie Friesen's grave is closest to
the road inside the fence.
April 18, 2010

Close up of Tillie Friesen's grave marker.
April 18, 2010



Tillie's marker has been mown over. April 18, 2011.
Tillie's marker has been mowed over.
April 18, 2011

Edna Doyle's grave.
Edna Doyle's grave is the next one to
the east of Tillie Friesen's marker.
April 18, 2010

Close up of Edna Doyle's grave.
April 18, 2010

Edna's marker has been run over. April 18, 2011.
Edna Doyle's marker has been run over.
April 18, 2011

Robert Arnold's (Andrew X) grave.
Robert Arnold (aka Andrew X)'s marker is
just east of Edna Doyle's marker.
April 18, 2010

Close up of Robert Arnold's (Andrew X) grave.
April 18, 2010

Edna Doyle's new grave marker. April 18th, 2012.
Edna Doyle's new grave marker.
April 18, 2012

Metal fence now encloses cemetery. April 2013.
Metal fence now encloses the cemetery once known as Green Acres Cemetery.
April 21, 2013

Cemetery in the distance, past the front gate, April 18, 2014.

Cemetery in the distance along Double EE Ranch Road, inside the front gate.
April 18, 2014

[Back to index near top of page].



McLennan County Restland Cemetery Burials
Waco, Texas
Photos by Matthew Wittmer
February of 2009
(updated April 2014)

McLennan County Restland Cemetery
February 2009

Entrance as of 2014.
April 21, 2014

The graves of Koresh Branch Davidians.
The graves of the Koresh Branch Davidians at Restland Cemetery.
April 21, 2014

The following photos are of all of the burial plot headstones located in the
McLennan County Restland Cemetery where several of the people who were killed
at Mount Carmel are buried.  The cemetery is referred to as a pauper's cemetery
by some of the local survivors. It is directly southeast of Oakwood Cemetery in the
city of Waco.  To access theses plots go to 9th street near the intersection of Martin
or Holt Avenue and you will see the gate pictured above. Floyd Houtman is in row 6.
Others who were killed in 1993 are in rows 7 and 8 in the order as arranged below.
Catherine Matteson, who died in 2009, is buried in row 18.

The end of rows 7 and 8 are where most people who were killed at Mount Carmel are buried.

Row 6 marker is just inside the fence.

Floyd Houtman

Row 7 marker is just inside the fence.


Unknown (second)

Child Jane Doe

Unknown (third)

Unknown (forth)

Aisha Summers

Sonia Murray

Raymond Friesen

Unknown Martinez

Unknown Martinez (second)

Abigail Martinez

Audrey Martinez

Joseph Martinez

Juliette Martinez

Row 8 marker is just inside the fence.

Jamie Martin

Unknown Martin Child

Wayne Martin

Anita Martin

Douglas Martin

Twin Jones

Twin Jones (second)

Serenity Jones

Michele Thibodeau

David Jones

Perry Jones

Bobbie Koresh

Cyrus Howell

Starr Howell

Rachel Koresh

Novellette Hipsman

Row 18

Catherine Matteson
We miss you Catherine. Rest in peace.

Oakwood Cemetery Burial
Waco, Texas

Photos by Matthew Wittmer
February 2009

Shari Doyle is buried on the north side of the south end of Oakwood Cemetery.

Shari Doyle


Tyler Memorial Cemetery
Tyler, Texas
Photos by Matthew Wittmer
April 2012

David Koresh, his mother Bonnie Haldeman, and her husband
Roy Haldeman are buried next to each other in the back part of the cemetery.

Bonnie Haldeman's marker

Bonnie's marker 2012

Roy's marker

David's view 2012

David's marker 2012

[Back to index near top of page].


Neil Vaega's Grave in Mangere Cemetery, Auckland, New Zealand
Photos by Matthew Wittmer
August 2014

Neil Vaega
Neil Vaega's grave in Mangere Cemetery, Auckland, New Zealand.
His grave has been moved once by the cemetery; the new marker 
has the wrong date of death (March when it should be April).
August 2014

[Back to index near top of page].



Houteff-era Davidian Burials at Rosemound Cemetery
Waco, Texas
Photos by Matthew Wittmer
April 2014

Davidian marker, Rosemound Cemetery, Waco, Texas.
Davidian grave marker with names of bodies relocated
to Rosemound Cemetery in Waco. The original burials were
in the cemetery at the old Mount Carmel location
(the old cemetery was at 6709 Bishop Drive - see below).
April 2013

Intersection just south of where Old Mt. Carmel cemetery site was located.
The intersection just south of where the
Old Mount Carmel Cemetery site was located.
April 2013

A house now sits over the old Mt. Carmel Cemetery site.
A house is now located where the cemetery plots
for the Old Mount Carmel site once existed
between 1935 and 1957.
April 2013

Below are the grave markers remaining for Davidian graves. The initial burial
site for these Davidians was on the Old Mount Carmel Site Cemetery, which
was located at 6709 Bishop Drive. The bodies and markers were relocated to
Rosemound Cemetery together in a group. They are on the south side near
the drive path and fence (enter cemetery, turn right, curve left).
Photos below are of that site.

Davidian name stone - opposite side.
Opposite side of the Davidian head stone.
April 2013

Names of Davidians buried at the Old Mount Carmel Cemetery site on a marker at Rosemound Cemetery.
Names of Davidians buried at the Old Mount Carmel Cemetery
are engraved on a single stone at Rosemound Cemetery.
Lillian's name appears twice in the third column.
April 21, 2014

Rosemound Cemetery Davidian grave plots.
Rosemound Cemetery Davidian plots - relocated from the
Old Mount Carmel Cemetery site.
April 2013

Panorama shot of Rosemound plots.
April 20, 2015

Ernest M. Purcell

Ralph H. Peterman

James Brooks Bowie

Amelia V. Mora

Sylverster W. Craig

Euphemia Graham

Eugene S. Lipsey

Eugene Soper Lipsey

David D. Clark

Georgia E. Baker

Georgia Eunice Baker

Nellie E. Green

Nellie Elizabeth Winget Green

William Bascom Baker

Addie Lee McTyre

Catherina Riehl

Louise Schaaf Quackenbush

Victor T. Houteff

Victor T. Houteff

Florence F. Charboneau

Florence F. Charboneau

Hermanson street is named after Florence's mother's maiden name.
Hermanson street in the Old Mount Carmel
location site remains named after Florence's
mother's maiden name.

Charles E. Charboneau

Judith Carolyn Bingham
Judith Bingham drowned.

Judith Carolyn and Sandra Grace Bingham Green
Both girls drowned at seperate times
according to Clive Doyle.

Genevieve tried to remove Bingham's name.
Genevieve attempted to chisel out her husband
name 'Bingham' on her daughter's grave stones.

Lillian E. Schleifer

Abraham L Friis

Barbara Ann Georgel

Marion L. Deeter

Deeter Street today in the Old Mt. Carmel location.
Deeter Street today in the Old Mount Carmel location.

[Back to index near top of page].


Wittmer, Matthew. Uncut drive to Mount Carmel east of Waco, Texas on FR 2491. August 2013.

Wittmer, Matthew. Clips from the April 19th 2013 Mt. Carmel Memorial. April 2013.

Wittmer, Matthew. Walking the dividing wall of the Mt. Carmel storm shelter. April 2013.

Wittmer, Matthew. Walking atop the storm shelter ruins at Mount Carmel 2012. April 2012.

Wittmer Matthew. Walking atop the ruins of the Mt. Carmel storm shelter east of Waco, Texas.
April 2011.

Wittmer, Matthew. Mt. Carmel Property Cemetery w/Ken Fawcett. April 2010.

Wittmer, Matthew. Driving to the Mt. Carmel property outside of Waco, Texas. April 2010.

Wittmer, Matthew. Driving to Mount Carmel near Waco, Texas. Feb 2009.

[Back to index near top of page].

Reference Sources

Arnold, Phillip. April 18, 2013. "The Branch Davidian Conflict: "To Obey God or Man." Reflecting on an American Tragedy: The Branch Davidians 20 Years Later. Baylor University, Institute for the Studies of Religion. A 40-minute talk that was video taped and can be selected and watched at this link: (accessed 16 July 2015).

Baily, Brad and Bob Darden. 1993. Mad Man in Waco. Waco, Tex.: WRS Publishing.

Bolding, Don. April 19, 2013. About 100 attend Branch Davidian reunion on 20th anniversary. Waco Tribune (accessed 17 June 2015).
 I can be seen in two of the four photos published with the online version of this article and my website is provided as more information at the article's conclusion. 

Bresnahan, David M. 2000. Feds Accused of torturing babies: Waco lawsuit condemns FBI, Delta Force for gassing women, children for 6 hours. World Net Daily (26 January). (accessed 16 June 2015). 

Brown, Peter J. 1993. On the trial in Texas. ONSTAT: America's Weekly Satellite Guide (May 24-30):C10-12.

Cole, Ron. 1993. Sinister Twilight: a tragedy near Waco, and a sinister twilight in America. Augie Enriquez: Portland, Oregon

Congressional Records. Congressional records are fully restricted for 50 years, however a listing for the Senate's records (ARC ID#657591 & #657590, both belonging to Record Group 46) and House of Representative records (ARC ID#1667879 belonging to Record Group 233) that each pertain to the congressional investigation into the events of 1993 at Mt. Carmel can be accessed via the National Archives & Records Administration's Archival Records Catalog (ARC) at: (accessed 16 June 2015).

CNN. April 17, 18, 2011. Waco: Faith, Fear, and Fire. Andy Segal, producer. I provided CNN producer Andy Segal with a map of the area, contact information for survivors, and an personally created an index to the negotiation audio tape collection that I provided Segal to use at Baylor University's Texas Collection.

Culp, Cindy. 2006. Branch Davidians caught in another power struggle. Waco Tribune-Herald, (April 20):1A, 6A.

Day 51. 1994. VHS. Directed by Robert Mosley. UTV. 

Dallam, Marie W. 2013. The Branch Davidian Symposium and Twentieth Anniversary Memorial 18 - 19 April 2013. Nova Religio: The Journal of New and Emergent Religions 17 (2):61-73.

Department of the Treasury, Report of the. 1993. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Investigation of Vernon Wayne Howell also known as David Koresh (September). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. [524 pages approximately, including appendices.] (accessed 16 July 2015).

De Vault, Jack. 1994. The Waco Whitewash, San Antonio: Rescue Press.

Doyle, Clive. 2012. A Journey to Waco: Autobiography of a Branch Davidian. With Catherine Wessinger and Matthew Wittmer. Landham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.

The F.L.I.R. Project
. 2001. VHS. Produced, written, researched and directed by Michael McNulty. COPS Productions.
This program shows how Danforth's re-examination of the forward looking infrared (taken on 19 April) is misleading and unreliable because basic details in reconstructing the use of the FLIR did not use the same weapons and was not conducted in the same enviornmental conditions that were present on 19 April 1993. This video also contains FBI footage of agents taking trophy shots of themselves next to charred victim corpses in the rubble immediately follwing the fire.

Frontline: Once upon a time in Arkansas. Vince Foster’s Journal. PBS Online. (accessed 16 June 2015).

Gladwell, Malcolm. 2014.
Sacred and Profane: How Not to Negotiate with Believers. The New Yorker.  (accessed 16 June 2015).

Haldeman, Bonnie. 2007. Memories of the Branch Davidians: The Autobiography of David Koresh's Mother. Catherine Wessinger, ed. Waco, Tex.: Baylor University Press.

Hancock, Lee. 1999. U.S. Warned to release Waco Siege Documents: Judge again threatens government with contempt. Dallas Morning News (03 November). 

Hardy David T. and Rex Kimball. 2001. This Is Not An Assault: Penetrating the Web of Official Lies Regarding the Waco Incident. Tinicum, Pennsylvania: Xlibris Corporation.
 Written by one of the three defense attorneys that has represented the survivors, this book is about how the governmental agencies involved in the debacle of 1993 reacted and continue to respond to this incident. It exposes the tragic accidents and cover-ups that have shielded the public from adequately seeing what happened during and after the siege. 

Houteff, Victor T. 1931. The Shepherd's Rod: The 144,000 of Revelation - Call for Reformation. Los Angeles: Universal Publishing Association.

Inside Mount Carmel
. 1993. VHS. Video taken of Mt. Carmel residents made for the FBI during the 51 day siege inside Mt. Carmel. Waco, Tex.: Mount Carmel Visitor’s Center Museum, 2000.

Institute for Studies of Religions. 2013. Reflecting on an American Tragedy: The Branch Davidians 20 Years Later. A symposium of presentations at Baylor University.  Click here for more information.

Kopel, David B and Paul H. Blackman. 1997.  No More Wacos: What's Wrong with Federal Law Enforcement and How to Fix It. New York: Prometheus Books.

Lynch, Timothy. 2001. No Confidence: An unofficial account of the Waco incident. The CATO Institute:policy analysis no. 395. (accessed 16 June 2015).

Martin, Sheila. 2009. When they were mine: memoirs of the Branch Davidian wife and mother. Catherine Wessinger, ed. Waco, Tex.: Baylor University Press.

McLaughlin, Martin. 1999. Cover-up of Waco massacre unravels as new evidence exposes FBI lies. World Socialist Web Site (4 September) (accessed 16 June 2015).

Melton, Gordon. April 18, 2013. "The Branch Davidians and Texas State History." Reflecting on an American Tragedy: The Branch Davidians 20 Years Later. Baylor University, Institute for the Studies of Religion. A 15-minute talk that was video taped and can be selected and watched at this link: (accessed 16 July 2015).

Mitchell, Douglas F. 2003-2009. General Association of Branch Davidian Seventh-day Adventists. (accessed 16 June 2015).

Moore, Carol. 1995. The Davidian Massacre: disturbing questions about Waco which must be answered. Franklin, Tennessee: Legacy Communications.
This book chronicles details about the ATF who were one of the central agencies involved in the initial raid as well as the FBI who were involved throughout the siege. It reveals how these agencies actions and press briefings lead to the massive misinterpretation of the Mt. Carmel community. 

Mount Carmel 911 Tape
. 1993. Audiocassette, 1-13 hours condensed. Waco, TX: Mount Carmel Visitor’s Center Museum, 2000.

Nelson, Alan and Sandra Gines. 1988. Crying in the Wilderness: A religious commune sets up a dwelling in the woods amid a struggle between rival prophets. Waco Tribune-Herald (17 January).

Newport, Kenneth G. C. 2006. The Branch Davidians of Waco: The History and Beliefs of an Apocalyptic Sect. New York: Oxford University Press.

Noesner, Gary. April 18, 2013. "The Challenges of Negotiating at Waco." Reflecting on an American Tragedy: The Branch Davidians 20 Years Later. Baylor University, Institute for the Studies of Religion. A 45-minute talk that was video taped and can be selected and watched at this link: (accessed 16 July 2015).

The Office of Special Counsel John C. Danforth. 2000. Final Report to the Deputy Attorney General: concerning the 1993 confrontation at the Mt. Carmel complex, Waco, Texas, Section (e), Pursuant to Order no. 2256-99. (8 November). PDF file with multiple appendices. [1604 pages including the appendices.]  Donated to the archive at Alkek Library, Texas State University-San Marcos and The Texas Collection, Baylor University, Waco, Texas.

Pace, Charles. Branch Davidian History Today.Net: setting the record straight.
(accessed 16 June 2015).

Pace, Charles. The 2 Branches. (accessed 1 June 2013. This site was not online for durations between 2009 and 2013).

Pate, James L. 2000. Waco: A New Revelation—startling new video ignites investigations. Soldier of Fortune (February): 52-55, 72.

Raston, Dina Temple. 2007. Branch Davidians see conspiracy in highway project. All Things Considered (18 May), National Public Radio. (accessed 16 June 2015).

Reavis, Dick J. 1995. The Ashes of Waco. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Reporters Committe for Freedom of the Press, The. 2000. Waco secrecy damaged public trust, report finds (Summer). The News, Media and the Law 24 (3): 23. (accessed 16 June 2015).

Robertson, J.J. 1996. Beyond the Flames: This is the true story of the massacre at Waco from a man who watched it happen. San Diego: ProMotion Publishing.

Roden, Amo. AMO RODEN HERSELF. (accessed 16 June 2015).

Shannon, Elaine. 1999. Feuding over Waco: Sects, files and videotape fuel the face-off between Justice and the FBI over the Branch Davidians. Time (13 September): 29-30.

Shappart, Sharlene. 2000. Take a moment to picture this. (access is not currently avaialble, but I'm leaving it here in the event Ms. Shappart republishes her site about the survivors in the future).

Stone, Alan A. 1993. Report and Recommendations Concerning the Handling of Incidents Such As the Branch Davidian Standoff in Waco Texas (8 November). In The Bill Smith Collection, Texas Collection, Baylor University. A 10 November 1993 version of this report that is nearly identical is available through the PBS website: (accessed 16 June 2015).

Tabor, James. 1995. Why Waco?. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
This book was written by a professor who was initially called in as a religious studies consultant to provide central negotiation strategies to resolve the initial raid situation after the ATF attack. The FBI, ATF and directives from Washington did not agree with Tabor's suggestions. They dismissed his recommendations and called in other consultants who recommended forceful tactics to get Davidians to leave the property.

The Texas Collection, Carroll Library, Baylor University, Waco, Texas.  Branch Davidian archival material holdings include the following series:
     The Mark Swett Collection
     The Joe Roberts Collection
     The Robert Darden Collection
     The Bill Smith Collection
     The Kirk T. Lyons Collection
     The Don Marion Collection
     The Amo Roden Collection
     The Matthew D. Wittmer Collection

(For a review of the contents of each of the collections above, contact The Texas Collection or read my article listed under Wittmer, Matthew in this list or in the index at the beginning of this website which covers some of the collections above).

Thibodeau, David and Leon Whiteson. 1999. A Place Called Waco: A Survivor’s Story, New York: Public Affairs.
A first hand account of the siege and fire written by survivor David Thibodeau. 

United States Department of Justice. 1993. Report to the Deputy Attorney General on the Events at Waco, Texas: Introduction (8 October). A redacted version of this report is at: (accessed 16 July 2015). 

Valentine, Carol A. 1996. Waco Electronic Holocaust Museum. Public Action Inc.. (accessed 16 June 2015).

Waco: A New Revelation. 1999. VHS & later DVD. Produced, written and researched by Michael McNulty and directed by Jason Van Vleet. MGA Films.
This is the sequel to Waco: Rules of Engagement and focuses more on the aftermath, questions of wrongdoing, and has interviews of some persons not in the first documentary. It summarizes the siege quickly and has information about what was going on with the intelligence outside the building that the first documentary does not present. 

Waco: The Rules of Engagement. 1997. VHS: red jacket director’s cut. Produced, written and researched by Michael McNulty and directed by William Gazecki. This version was a joint production between Gazecki and McNulty and released before the version that went on to Sundance that was distributed by Somford Entertainment. The Somford version is now on DVD.
This documentary received two thumbs up from Siskel and Ebert and began raising eyebrows at what was not covered by the media by showing footage taken from the air by the FBI. This documentary mixes interviews with survivors of the siege in with the actual footage of the siege and testimony from the 1995 Sub Committee Hearings on Crime investigation. The first version of this was released on VHS with a red jacket cover (only about 5000 copies exist) and is longer than the version that won awards and was distributed by Somford Entertainment. This documentary takes you through the entire 51-day siege and focuses on showing the actions of ATF and FBI agents. The red jacket version has a different narrator, different editing and different ending. The Somford version has material not in the red jacket version.

Wessinger, Catherine. Professor of Religious Studies, Loyola University, New Orleans. (accessed 16 June 2015).

Wessinger, Catherine. April 18, 2013. "Listening to the Branch Davidians: Learning from the Survivors." Reflecting on an American Tragedy: The Branch Davidians 20 Years Later. Baylor University, Institute for the Studies of Religion. A 45-minute presentation with siege survivors Clive Doyle and Sheila Martin that was video taped and can be selected and watched at this link: (accessed 16 July 2015).

Wessinger, Catherine. June 2014. “The Siege of the Branch Davidians at Mount Carmel Center According to the FBI.” CESNUR Annual Conference. Baylor University, Institute for the Studies of Religion. (accessed 16 July 2015).

Wittliff Collections. Ashes of Waco: A blog about the digitization and online presentation of archival materials in the Dick J. Reavis Papers. Southwestern Writers Collection, Alkek Library, Texas State University-San Marcos. (accessed 16 June 2015).

Wittliff Collections. Dick J. Reavis Papers. Southwestern Writers Collection, Alkek Library, Texas State University-San Marcos. Collection #086, 103 boxes (51 linear feet). (accessed 16 July 2015).

Wittliff Collections. Lee Hancock Collection. Southwestern Writers Collection, Alkek Library, Texas State University-San Marcos.

Wittliff Collections. Matthew Wittmer Collection. Southwestern Writers Collection, Alkek Library, Texas State University-San Marcos. Wooden memorial model of the Mount Carmel building and 1604 page Danforth Investigation report.

The Wittliff Collections. Ashes of Waco: A Digitized Archive from the Wittliff Collections. Southwestern Writers Collection, Alkek Library, Texas State University-San Marcos. (accessed 16 June 2015).
Photos of mine are featured on the sister blog to this site at the following three links:

Wittmer, Matthew. April 18, 2013. "A Pictorial Introduction to the Mount Carmel Property." Reflecting on an American Tragedy: The Branch Davidians 20 Years Later. Baylor University, Institute for the Studies of Religion. A 30-minute visual presentation that was video taped and can be selected and watched at this link: (accessed 16 July 2015).

Wittmer, Matthew. 2009.
Traces of the Mount Carmel Community: Documentation and Access.
 Nova Religio: The Journal of New and Emergent Religions 13 (2):95-113. 

Wright, Stuart A, ed. 1995. Armageddon in Waco: Critical Perspectives on the Branch Davidian Conflict. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Wright, Stuart. April 18, 2013. "The Role of State Militarization in the 1993 Branch Davidian Conflict." Reflecting on an American Tragedy: The Branch Davidians 20 Years Later. Baylor University, Institute for the Studies of Religion. A 30-minute presentation that was video taped has not been uploaded to Baylor ISR's channel on youtube as of 16 June 2015, but I have notified ISR it is the only presentation missing so hopefully it should be posted.

Mount Carmel Memorial Postcard

Postcards of the memorial model are available.  They have the address of the property printed on the them, though the Visitor's Center is no longer exhibiting the model, photos or artifacts since the survivors moved off of the property in 2006. Email any inquiries and write WACO POSTCARD in the subject heading. Donate what you can. 100% goes to the survivors fund. 

© All images on this site copyright by Matthew D. Wittmer